OK, You've Got 5 Seconds To Get My Attention
Fond Du Lac
SAFE WATER ASSOCIATION, INC.,
CITY OF FOND DU
Case No. 92 CV 579
AFFIDAVIT OF ALBERT SCHATZ, Ph.D.
IN SUPPORT OF MOTION FOR
State of Pennsylvania
City of Philadelphia
Albert Schatz, Ph.D., being first duly sworn on
oath and with personal knowledge of the information contained herein,
respectfully states to the Court as follows:
- I received my B.Sc. in 1942 in Soil Chemistry, and my
Ph.D. in 1946 in Soil Microbiology, each from
- I have held numerous academic positions. Since 1980, I
have been a Senior Professor at Temple University.
- At the age of 23, I discovered the antibiotic
Streptomycin. This compound was the first effective drug for the treatment of
- I have been awarded honorary degrees and titles by the
University of Chile, the Autonomous University of Santo Domingo, the
Federal University of Espirito Santo in
Brazil, the National University of San Antonio Abad
del Cuzco in Peru, and the University of Bogota in Colombia.
- I have been named an honorary member of the Scientific
Society of Chile, the Chilean Society of Pediatrics, The Academy of Oral
Dynamics (USA), the Stomatological Society of Greece, and many others.
- I am also a Fellow of the Royal Society of Health in
- I have published three books, and more than 500 articles
in scientific and professional journals, and in popular magazines and
- On the subject of fluoridation, I have published
numerous articles, including:
- The Failure of Fluoridation in Chile, Pakistan Dental
Review, 1967; 15:83.
- Failure of Fluoridation in the United Kingdom. Pakistan
Dental Review, 1972; 22:3.
- The failure of fluoridation in England. Manchester Union
Leader, Jan 27, 1973.
- Censorship suppresses information unfavorable to
fluoridation. Divulgacion Cultural Odontologica, 1975; 110:32.
- Increased death rates in Chile associated with
artificial fluoridation of drinking water. Journal of Arts, Sciences and
Humanities. 1976; 2:1.
- From 1962 to 1965 I lived in Chile. During that time I
served as a Professor at the University of Chile, and worked in the Faculty of
Medicine, the Faculty of Dentistry, the Faculty of Agriculture, and the Faculty
of Philosophy and Education. I was also associated with numerous projects in the
Ministry of Health, Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Education.
EXPERIENCE CONCERNING THE DANGERS OF
- Chile began to experiment with artificial fluoridation
in 1953. By the 1960s, it became clear to me that fluoridation was causing
serious harm, and I undertook a study which showed increased death rates in
Chile associated with artificial fluoridation. My dramatic findings were later
- My first finding is perhaps the most disturbing. Those
authorized to study and review the safety and effectiveness of fluoridation
consistently distorted the data to achieve the desired results.
- When the data for the three "test" cities in Chile were
examined, Curico, F 1 ppm, San Fernando F 0.0 ppm, and La Serena 0.67 ppm, the
only possible conclusion was that fluoridation was causing significant numbers
- Consider, for example, the deaths resulting from
congenital malformations as a percent of the total number of deaths. Curico has
244% more such deaths than San Fernando, and 94% more than La Serena.
(Exhibit____, table 1).
- Infant mortality rates in Curico were 69% greater than
in San Fernando and La Serena. (Id, table 2).
- For a fuller understanding of some of the harmful
effects caused by fluoridation, read exhibit____. Chile abandoned artificial
fluoridation shortly after I sent copies of my report to all dental and medical
officers in the Pan American Health Organization.
- In Chile, with widespread malnutrition and high infant
mortality, it was not necessary to observe a generation of people throughout
their entire life-span in order to determine whether artificial fluoridation is
or is not harmful. One could see the lethal effect of fluoridation within the
first year of life in terms of increased infant mortality due to acute toxicity
of fluoride. Some other adverse effects, like congenital malformations, may or
may not cause death.
- In the US, the harmful effects of artificial
fluoridation are not so clearly revealed by large-scale, comparative studies of
the total populations of fluoridated and control cities, because Americans as a
whole are in a considerably better state of nutrition than Chileans.
- Nonetheless, artificial fluoridation of drinking water
may well dwarf the thalidomide tragedy, which was dramatic because it produced
crippled children who are living testimonials to what that drug has done. Many
victims of artificial fluoridation, on the other hand, die quietly during the
first year of their lives, or at a later age under conditions where their deaths
are attributed to some other cause.
EFFECTIVENESS OF FLUORIDATION
- In 1969, the British Committee on Research into
Fluoridation reported the fluoridation of water supplies is a highly effective
way of reducing caries. My published analysis of the data, with Dr. Joseph
Martin, shows that fluoridation does not protect against tooth decay.
- The data clearly showed that fluoridation only delays
the appearance of caries. For example, 10-year-old fluoridated and 8.8-year-old
control children had about the same DMFT. A comparison of other corresponding
age groups shows a similar delay of approximately 1.2 years in the appearance of
caries. (Exhibit ___, figure 2).
- Fluoridation merely postpones the appearance of caries.
Fluoridated children develop the same amount of tooth decay as their
non-fluoridated counter-parts over their lifetime. The only difference is that
caries start developing approximately 1.2 years later.
- There is no economic benefit for such actions. Since
fluoride does not reduce caries, fluoridated and control children will develop
the same amount of tooth decay. Both groups will therefore require the same
amount of dental treatment. People in fluoridated areas therefore pay for the
same amount of dental treatment plus the added cost of fluoridation.
REFUSAL TO CONSIDER ADVERSE EVIDENCE
- On the strength of the data I had analyzed in Chile, I
wrote L.C. Hendershot, editor of the Journal of the American Dental Association.
I asked him if he would be interested in seeing my report of increased death
rates, and if he would consider it for publication in JAMA.
- When he did not reply to that letter of inquiry, I sent
him three copies of the report in January, February, and March of 1965. Dr.
Hendershot refused to accept all three communications, which were therefore
returned to me, unopened. Copies of the certified envelopes, marked refused, are
figure 3, exhibit____.
- Such a response is typical of the proponents of
fluoridation. The professional sanctions for opposing fluoridation can be
severe, and it is best not to even acknowledge evidence of harm or
- Artificial fluoridation has not been as widely accepted
as its proponents imply. Many cities in the US have discontinued fluoridation
after starting it. Virtually all of Europe has considered and abandoned
- Because artificial fluoridation causes deaths among
individuals who are for one reason or another more sensitive to fluoride
toxicity than the total population taken as a whole, the controversy over
whether fluoridation does or does not reduce caries is purely academic. It is
criminal to implement a so-called public health measure which kills certain
people even if it does reduce tooth decay in some of the survivors. As noted,
the evidence is that it merely delays decay.
- It is my best judgment, reached with a high degree of
scientific certainty, that fluoridation is invalid in theory and ineffective in
practice as a preventive of dental caries. It is dangerous to the health of
- I make this Affidavit in support of the Plaintiff's
Motion for Summary Judgment.
Press Release, 30 June 1993 | Update, 25 June 1993 | Sherrell transcript, 1992 |
Frank Bertrand, B.D.S. | Albert W. Burgstahler, Ph.D. | Robert J. Carton, Ph.D. | John Colquhoun, D.D.S. | Mark Diesendorf, Ph.D. | Richard G. Foulkes, M.D. | Sheila L. M. Gibson, M.D. | John Remington Graham, Esq. | Gerard F. Judd, Ph.D. | George W. Kell, Esq. | David C. Kennedy, D.D.S | Robert Roy Kintner, Ph.D. | Lennart Krook, D.V.M., Ph.D. | John R. Lee, M.D. | William L. Marcus, Ph.D., D.A.B.T. | Jim Maxey, D.D.S | Hans C. Moolenburgh, M.D. | H. J. Roberts, M.D. | Jan F. Sallstrom, Ph.D | Albert Schatz, Ph.D. | A.K. Susheela, Ph.D. | Philip R. N. Sutton, B.D.Sc. | Deloss E. Winkler, Ph.D. | exhibits